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Various villagers
Anastasis' family
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Youlas' family
Gratsiounis' family
Dimopoulos' family
Ziakas' family (Zakos)
Kalyvas' family
G.Katergaris' family
Kotrotsos' family
Koufaliotis' family
Ligdis' family
Mandragonis' family
Balatsias' family
Danas' family
Papadopoulos' family
Voula Svadagallou
Fousias' family
Haralampis' family


Historical/Cultural Information

1. Agonists from Paparousi in the Rebellion of 1821
2. Residents of Paparousi in 1865
3. Engagement of rural policeman in the Paparousi in 1907
4. Pioneer Paparousians in America
5. In the difficult years of the Civil War
6. Water mills
7. Gastra - cooking vessel (to be translated)
8. Childhood memories (poem)

1. Agonists from Paparousi in the Rebellion of 1821

Anagnostopoulos or Matragkonis Athanasios
He was born in Paparousi. His family probably came from Constantinople in 1786. He fought in the rebellion from 1821 to 1828, with more than six soldiers. He fought in Karpenisi, Saint Vlassios, Kefalovryso, Ananiada, Kaliakouda, Megalo Xorio, Kaggelia, outside Mesologgi, Tatarna, leaded by Gioldasis and Karaiskakis. He was honoured by Queen Olga for his efforts. One of his descendants, Georgios Mandragonis, lives in Paparousi now.

Skondras Konstantinos
He fought in Stougko, Sobolako, Kefalovryso, Neokastro and Arahova with Karaiskakis. He also fought in Agia Triada with Logothetis Zotos and in Potamoula Zygou with I. Fragkistas.

Papadimitriou or Triantafyllos Nikolaos
He fought in Mesologgi at head of 15-20 soldiers, leaded by Makris (Zygiotis), K. Gioldasis or Seretis and others.

Triantafyllos Anagnostis Nikolaou
He was born in 1805. He fought in Karpenisi, Megalo Xorio, Kefalovryso and Kaliakouda with I. Gioldasis. He also fought in Mesologgi, Neokastro, Arahova and other places with K. Gioldasis.

2. Residents of Paparousi in 1865

LASTNAME NAME, FATHER'S NAME (OCCUPATION) Αλεξόπουλος Γεώργιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Αναγνωστόπουλος Αθανάσιος, Αναγνώστης (κτηματίας)
Αναστασίου Αθανάσιος, Αναστάσιος (γεωργός)
Αναστασίου Γεώργιος, Αναστάσιος (γεωργός)
Αναστασίου Δημήτριος, Αναστάσιος (γεωργός)
Αναστασίου Ιωάννης, Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Αναστασίου Κωνσταντίνος, Αθανάσιος (γεωργός)
Αναστασίου Σπυρίδων, Δημήτριος (γεωργός)
Αρβανιτάκης Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Βλάχου Ιωάννης, Αθανάσιος (γεωργός)
Γιολδάσης Γεώργιος, Δημήτριος (γεωργός)
Γούλα Γεώργιος, Γούλας (γεωργός)
Γουριώτης Κωνσταντίνος, Νικόλαος (γεωργός)
Γουριώτης Νικόλαος, Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Γρατσούνης Γεώργιος, Βασίλειος (γεωργός)
Γρατσούνης Σπυρίδων (γεωργός)
Δημήτριος Γεώργιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Δημόπουλος Δημήτριος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Δημόπουλος Ιωάννης, Δήμος (γεωργός)
Δημόπουλος Κωνσταντίνος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Ευδοκάκης Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Θεοδώρου Χαράλαμπος, Θεόδωρος (γεωργός)
Θέου Γεώργιος, Θαίος (γεωργός)
Θεοχάρης Κωνσταντίνος, Θεοχάρης (γεωργός)
Καλύβας Δημήτριος, Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Καλύβας Ευαγγέλης, Δημήτριος (γεωργός)
Καλύβας Ιωάννης, Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Κάπας Χρήστος, Δημήτριος (γεωργός)
Καπούλιας Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Καραγκούνης Γεώργιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Καραγκούνης Νικόλαος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Κατεργάρης Δημήτριος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Κοκορώνης Ιωάννης, Νικόλαος (γεωργός)
Κολύβας Δημήτριος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Κουμπάρος Σπυρίδων (γεωργός)
Κουφαλιώτης Γεώργιος, Βασίλειος (γεωργός)
Κουφαλιώτης Δημήτριος, Αντώνιος (γεωργός)
Κουφαλιώτης Ιωάννης, Αντώνιος (γεωργός)
Κουφαλιώτης Κωνσταντίνος, Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Κουφαλιώτης Νικόλαος, Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Ξενάκης Σπυρίδων, Αθανάσιος (γεωργός)
Πέτρου Νικόλαος, Πέτρος (γεωργός)
Ριζόπουλος Γεώργιος, Χρήστος (γεωργός)
Σκαρλάτος Γεώργιος, Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Σκαρλάτος Δημήτριος, Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Σκαρλάτος Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Στερόπουλος Αντώνιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Σύρος Γεώργιος (γεωργός)
Σώκος Σπυρίδων (γεωργός)
Τριανταφυλλόπυλος Γεώργιος, Νικόλαος (γεωργός)
Τσάκαλος Γεώργιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Τσάκαλος Δημήτριος, Αλέξιος (γεωργός)
Τσιαμπάσης Γεώργιος, Ιωάννης (γεωργός)
Τσιαμπάσης Νικόλαος (γεωργός)
Τσιτούρης Χρήστος, Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)
Χαραλάμπης Κωνσταντίνος, Χαράλαμπος (γεωργός)
Χολέβας Σπυρίδων, Νικόλαος (γεωργός)
Χρηστοδουλιάς Κωνσταντίνος (γεωργός)

3. Engagement of rural policeman in the Paparousi in 1907

Rural police. Is the institution that provides for the keeping the order and safety in the countryside. This term declares the entity that performs police duties in the rural regions. The rural police was organised for the first time in Greece with the decree of 31-12-1836, which was modified by law on 15-9-1856. The rural policemen were elected by the householders of properties of each region, were appointed by the mayor and were paid by the Municipal Fund. They were compelled to deposit a guarantee for compensation of householders in case of damage in their demands and for which they did not discover the perpetrator of. They had the right to carry weapons and interrogate.

Report of the swearing in ceremony of rural policemen (No 83). In Karpenisi and at the office of the Justice of the Peace, this date, Friday, the twenty-first of November, 1903, day and at 03:00 p.m. in my presence, Magistrate of Evrytania, Hr. Kanellopoulou and also in the presence of the Secretary Stavros Papakalou, Mr. Ser. D. Antonopoulos resident of Paparousi, appeared in person and presented document No. 980, with today's date, issued by the Police officer of Karpenisi, which establishes that he, according to article 21, of law B.ΡΠΗ, of No. 2462 approval order of the Prefect of Evritania, and from the request of Ms. Dem. Antonopoulou, resident of Paparousi, dated on the 5th of the present month, he was appointed as a rural policeman for the safekeeping of pastures in the area of Souf-Miliotika and Palourgia of the region of Paparousi for the next two years, starting from this date. He requested to be sworn in on the basis of Drs 66 and 66% pay, he appeared and placed his right hand on the Holy Bible he was sworn in as follows: "I swear to be faithfully vigilant, precisely and sincerely in the keeping of the pastures located in the area of Souf-Miliotikou and Paliourgia of the Paparousi village, of requestor, Dimitr. Antonopoulou for two years from this date, with no leniency to anybody for any cause and damage to third parties, and to report any damages to the responsible policeman. This is who I am and God is my witness and the Holy Bible".

This report was drafted and certified and after it was read, all parties apart from the sworn in individual, who said that he's illiterate, signed it legally.

The Magistrate Hr. Kanellopoulos

4. Pioneer Paparousians in America

NAME OF TRAVELLER - YEAR OF ARRIVAL - AGE AT ARRIVAL Yiannis Antonopoulos - 1915 - 33
Georgios Ligdis - 1906 - 20
Georgios Koufaliotis - 1915 - 38
Serafim Goulas - 1907 - 24 (uncle of Spyros & Pavlos in Charlotte)
Nikolaos Gouriotis - 1920 - 36
Athanasios Anastasis - 1909 - 26
Nikolaos Alexopoulos - 1914 - 23
Alexis Alexopoulos - 1914 - 29 (he later resided in Karpenisi)
Ioannis Alexopoulos - 1910 - 25
Dimitrios Triantafilopoulos - 1920 - 29 (my grandmother's Papadoula "Zaharomitsos" brother)
Georgios Katergaris - 1909 - 25
Serafim Katergaris - 1911 - 25
" " - 1915 - 31 (the same person. Many immigrants returned to fight in WWI and immigrated again)
Georgios Mandragonis - 1906 - 18
Vasilios Dimopoulos - 1907 - 20 (Dimos Vasilis)
Georgios Danas - 1907 - 19 (Dem. Danas' in Australia uncle. Brother of Aristidis Danas. Son of Ioannis Danas cantor from Babouri) Georgios Tsabasis - 1907 - 19
Serafim Tsabasis - 1915 - 27

Ioannis A. Papadopoulos The struggle of the pioneer Paparousians to escape the rough mountains of Evritania was tremendous. And they tried every possible way to find the money for the tickets, travel and have a very difficult month onboard a ship to arrive in New York, unwashed and with obvious malnutrition. Once there, finding a job was also very difficult. Each one measured his resistances. Their main aim was to send money back to their families. There were many challenges in America. Most of them were able to adjust to the system. Others didn't and they returned.

A lot of personal histories are unfolded while abroad, which give messages in today's world. Some tried to forget their past (if something like that can be accomplished). We will try to provide you what information we were able to collect for the G. Danas (Papadopoulos). He arrived in America in 1907 and never returned to the village. He was sending money to his family until his only son, Athanassios, finished primary school. (He himself would have been 30 years old). The Balkan War in 1912 intervened and he stopped sending letters. In the meantime, his son wedded and raised a big family with 7 children and almost all of them immigrated to America. In 1964 they found the restaurant that he worked, known as George Papadopoulos. They were told that he had retired 15 years earlier. They also informed them, that in the difficult years, he supported other suffering Greeks and he was an excellent cook. They did not manage to meet him as it is possible that he made a new family there.

We are waiting for information for the remainder pioneers of our village. Their struggle has much to say to the current timid persons of "the couch and of the lguor of the television".

Helen Dana

5. In the difficult years of the Civil War

Recollections of Vasilis Kalyvas
Editing - Presentation: Athanasia Kon. Dana

War! A huge suffering for the human race. It is the product of disobedience and apostasy. Precedence and imposition of I to YOU. The Civil war is the worse category and curse of nations.

...Our Greece was not excluded. A fatal consequence for our country too. Same applied for our place of origin. Our birthplace lived everything through the passing of time. It became familiar with the civil war as well. From our early years of our lives and with a tightened heard, we would listen sad and dreary stories for our village, our beautiful hamlet and its people that in the children's eyes everything strikes so pure, united and beautiful. We heard about rebels, about army, black-berets, about the national rift so suddenly, about the animosity, hatred, the revenge, the fear, pain, crimes... We heard about brothers killing brothers, relatives killing relatives, fellow villages killing each other, neighbours killing neighbours. This was happening for ideological reasons but also for reasons of non-acquitted differences.

And we ached. We could not understand why so much hate, why so much smallness, why so much savagery and decline. It left us with a bitter sense and blackness from the pictures that were shaped in our minds by these stories. As if there was a need to exhort all this, something to overshadow and prevail it, was sought. Something that would replace human meanness and float.

One day we were talking with Mr. Vasilis Kalyvas, while drinking coffee at his house, our conversation came about the old years, the difficult poor, the belligerent years... And he began to recount what he lived through, as he came through them and as he marked them with his own participation and presence. They are recorded as they were precisely said and then recorded after his approval and permission.

"It was approximately during the middle of September of '48, when our village's mobilisation occurred from the irregular troops, the guerrillas. They mobilized all the youth around the age of twenty-five. A lot of these men were lost, others were handicapped and all that survived made it through 1951 with big adventures.

We were three brothers. My brother, Demosthenis was hanged in Kerasovo. The guerrilla considered him a suspect and that he would escape as he had served in the army for four years. With my other brother, Leonidas, we were forced to go up to the borders where he was wounded. They took him to Albania and I lost his tracks since then. Then, I went to Tzoumerka. It was when I decided to abandon the irregular troops and enlist in the army. However, I was very careful because in both the army and the irregular troops there were spies. I went to a house and I asked an old woman to find the major and tell him that I wanted to present myself to him because if I were to be arrested by the irregular troops, I would be hurt. She went and told him that a rebel wanted to present himself and he sent two soldiers to escort me to him so I wouldn't be harmed. I was 27 years old. When I presented myself, all the officers welcomed me wholeheartedly and asked me to remain in the battalion, but I did not want to stay there. I went down to Giannena where there was a camp that made ice and also assembled all the prisoners. I stayed there for about two weeks, I was asked to work in the deposits of the camp and paid me two Drs per day. There were battles every day, with the guerrillas that were coming down from the mountains. Together with 5 or 6 others, we considered requesting enrolment into the army and serve. My age group was serving.

The General, Dimitris Balodimos approved our requests immediately. He was a good man. He had told us to speak to him for anything we needed without fear. He helped us free 90 prisoners. We formed a group for "special missions" and called it "handpicked troops". This group would undertake the most dangerous missions. It was at that time, that I met a young detainee, Vasilis Mylonas, who was sentenced to death 4 times. He was a policeman before and because he had given weapons to the guerrilla, he was accused for treason. His origin was from a village of Agrinio called Agia Paraskevi. He was held in a dungeon and when I offered him his freedom, he would not believe it and refused. I pleaded with him to sign the list I had, to save him and he would still refuse. After many difficulties and mistrust from his part, he accepted and signed the list. I was able to free 16 prisoners on that day. That day, I rescued 60 people, in total, with the General's assistance, to whom I had said that were people I knew. For that particular man, I told him that he was a fellow villager and with another 15 men, I freed them on a Friday, as Saturdays were the execution days. The execution area was called "Egg". This man, even when ascertained, would still not believe that he was rescued, and yet my services were appreciated in my struggle to save him as well. I took him to the barracks where he served another two years and then discharged. I'd lost his tracks since then. Twenty years have passed and when I went to Australia, a year later, accidentally I discovered that, that man was there. We met and I can't describe our emotions when we saw each other again.

From our village, I helped Kostas Dimopoulos, son of Fotis. He was caught in Voriakas, Epirus. He was handicapped with one leg. They brought him to Giannena in November, unfed and haggard. I offered him first aid, and I went to the interrogator and testified that the young man was a good man and was destroyed by the opposition. The court hearing was to be held in Giannena, but got postponed and was later held in Lamia in order for the defence witnesses to arrive from the village. There were 2 or 3 that testified against him. Finally they asked me. I testified that he was the best man of the village and that's how he got away and was rescued.

I had also helped Giorgos Triantafillopoulo son of Dimitrios, brother of Yannis, the same way, but was later killed in a minefield. I had also rescued Serafim Koutsomitro from Stenoma. He had served in the army as a shooter in the Heavy Artillery and when the guerrilla mobilized him, he was used as such. During a battle with the army, in the mountains of Epirus, he was arrested and was brought to Giannena half naked. I dressed and fed him, because the food they were giving was very little. He was scheduled to go through court marshal. I testified that he was a "right-thinking patriot", that he served our country and that he was mobilized by force. My excuses rescued him and he was released.

Some day in Giannena, we were commanded to go to an area called Krya, where the water fountains supplied the city. We set up ambush in the mountain Misikeli at 1.30 at night. We put garrison and at some point in the morning, four guerrilla officers passed by. We surrounded them near a fountain. Three of them managed to get away, one surrendered. We disarmed him and asked him if he wanted to join us. He accepted our offer. His name was Thanasis Bouflas. We brought him down to Giannena and took him for questioning at the A2 of the Division and kept him in our unit. He served two years and as he had prior service, he was discharged. I served a total of 3 years. I lost his tracks for years and found him much later with the assistance of V. Mylona, who came to his wife's village in Kalpaki, Ioannina and told me where he was. He was divorced and married to a guerrilla. He had 150 sheep and I remember his house full of weapons belonging to him and his wife. He did not remember me, but when I told him who I was, he remembered me, embraced and kissed me and said that it felt like I added 10 years in his life. When I told him that I liked his village very much and that I wanted to stay, he wanted to give me a piece of land.

I remember also an incident in Vovousa, during a battle with the guerrilla. We were 8 soldiers and the guerrillas were 90. We took them by surprise and they did not realize how many we were. They thought that we were a whole battalion. During their retreat, they fell in a stream. There we saw an injured man. I ran to help him and so they won't hurt him. I realised that she was a girl. She was dressed in black and her face was wounded and covered in blood. I told her not to be afraid, I washed her and tied up her head with a bandage. She trembled from fear. She was from Almiros, Volos. Her first cousin was by accident between us, he was a corporal. She saw him and did not object. I put her on a mule and went down in Konitsa for interrogation at the A2 of the Division. I ordered her what to say and not to be afraid.

She was a volunteer guerrilla and in the major's question "what made you go with them?" she told him: "I will tell you and you tell me what you would have done in you were in my position. Two years ago, in '46, he... (1) reached Almyros Volou with 150 men, black-berets, (irregular troops). He asked that the whole village gather up. Five hundred were gathered and another four hundred were in the fields. He made a speech and asked that 150 pies and 150-roasted chicken be brought to him at the school. When they took what they asked for, they took 150 girls from us and they dishonoured us. The whole village was in total disorder. They notified the guerrilla troops to come down to the village but ... (1) had fled through a gorge. Therefore, the whole village took up arms and went after him... that's how I was found in this situation."

Hearing her horrible history, I proposed that she does not go to prison and that her troubles end right there and then. I asked that her family be notified as well. I wrote a letter to her father and her brother came and took her. I did not have the chance to meet them. They however sent gifts and letters to me. These were the adventures and the facts that I lived from 1947 until 1951.

When I returned to the village, everything was burned by the Black-berets. In any case there were criminals on both sides. My brother Leonidas, after Albania, went to Romania, I prepared his papers and he returned to Greece. He now lives in Karen's, he's married but without children.

During the civil war, I was married to Mesia and had two children, Serafim and Voula. I left for Australia in 1967. In the meantime, I had two more children, Vangelis and Elli. I left Greece for search of a better life, and intended to return, but I realised that there, our labour was recognized and start a good life. Therefore, I remained with my family and everything went very well. I came back to Greece for a short period, ten years after I left".

Throughout the time he spoke, slowly and simply, one realizes the simplicity with which he described the facts in which he participated and characterized. He wasn't boasting, he was simply telling as he lived the facts, as he acted, as he "spoke" to himself in order to act. It was obvious that he considered his duty as a person to help when and where it was needed, without empathy for one or the other, but anticipating only the need of others, perhaps recognizing the illusion and the curse of men to be involved in such situations either voluntarily or not. He gave his permission to tape and transcribe all that he said for the following reasons: First, in order to created a source of information that would likely be sought by others at some point. Second, in order to be the motive of response and the deposit of recollections and experiences from others. This is a priceless wealth and there should not be the least hesitation, much more indifference for depositing, recording and safekeeping. Third, because during a war and especially, a civil war, where horrible, inhumane and savagery take place, examples as such, illustrate hope and is worth mentioning forever. Fourth, because in our days with so much worrying evidence of scorn, we really need to remind ourselves of the parable of the "Good Samaritan" that our Lord said when asked "What is Love, Who is thy Neighbour!"

1) His name is not reported because this article was not written to report or blame certain people, but to present the facts and the acts as they took place. The character and the message of which is relies in the human intention and "readiness".

6. Water mills

Water mills were essential laboratories of each village. Without a mill there was no flour and bread. The village Paparousi had two mills, which belonged to the churches of the village. One of them was located in the lower part of the village, where the two streams of Kitherema and Kefalovriso (or Koukia) are met. The operation of the mill was undertaken after an auction. The bidder took the operation for a certain period of time. Wheat or maize was the payment to the church, which in turn sold for money.

It is known that the village never had abundance in water. For that reason, two "myrovlaka" (canals) supplied water in the mill that was at the "foot" of the village. One was coming from Keitherema and the other from Kefalovryso. This was the winter mill of the village. I do not know if the ruins of the two water mills exist anymore. The summer mill operated in Koutsohorafo. This was found at the foot of the slope called "Vigles" and "Aposkia", at the left bank of Kalesmeniotiko stream. Paparousiotika and Monastiriotika fields existed in that area. The main reason that the mill was operating in that area was that the stream had abundant water, both in winter and summer. The canal was 2-3 kilometres long. I remember that when the water was coming lesser, my father would send me to check what was happening. The clever and "limping Mitsiako" would punch holes at the canal in certain places, without being noticed, in order to water her fields. This mill was burned by the Germans in ' 44. My father, Thanasis G. Papadopoulos together with ten captured Italians built it again. He also perfected its mechanism. "Barba"-Thanasis was one of the few people in Evrytania, who knew how to make a mill mechanism and Mantania. After his return in the ' 50s, he corrected the mill in Stenoma, Gali's in Monastiraki and the two in the village.

Description of the mill: The crystal clear waters of the mountainous valleys when descending they create natural small waterfalls. The miller "cuts" the improvised dam "desi" and forces it to follow the next mountain sides "myravlako" that has a certain bent for a smooth flow of the water. At the point where the watercourse of the stream is 5 to 10 or 15 metres far from the canal and had the suitable hydraulic fall, the traditional hydraulic laboratory was built, the so called watermill. It was the first primitive effort of men to exploit the force of the liquid element, hydrodynamics. At the backside of the mill, a "kalani" (cylinder which is filled with water and throws it on the water wheel of the water mill) was placed. It was a conical manufacture, which was placed backwards. It was made from wooden concave boards, 5 meters high and tied up with sturdy crowns from metal sheets (sometimes wooden too). The narrow part (stenomero) led to the inlet (lip) of 5 cm diameter. This inlet could decrease or enlarge according to the supply of the water. The emerging water fell on the fins of the water wheel that were horizontal and made them turn. Today, such fall is called "jet". The water wheel was located at the yposkafo "zorio". After going through the water wheel, it (the water) was watering the fields or another canal. The axis of the water wheel was going through the first floor and the lower permanent millstone and with one horizontal iron "helidona" turned the upper millstone, which one could make go up or down and make the grinding fine or thick. Over the millstone, a crate of pyramidal design, where the maize or the wheat was entering, was swinging. Under it, the "kariki" was located. A small crate, where the grinding was gathered and with a slow movement to and fro, it fell again in the hole of the upper stone and was again grinded against the two stones. It would then be turned to flour and would fall in the flour receiver and into the sack, which was placed underneath.

The whole mechanism made a rhythmical noise so the miller could fall asleep. He, however, had his alarm clock, the "vardaria" (a wooden part of the mill, which regulates the fall of the product on the millstone). At the bottom of the turned over trough, a horizontal rope was going through it. Two metal or wooden vrontalidia-clapper boards (similar to a rattle) were hanging. The rope would sag from the weight of the product and raised the vrontidia. When the grinding was completed, the rope would tighten and they touched the turning stone, making a terrible noise that could even scare a deaf person. The miller would wake up and prepare a new load. The mill required regular maintenance and attention. A lot of things could happen, for example the water running low, etc. Every now and then he had to turn upside down the upper millstone and hammer both.

The residents of the area brought the grinding with the donkey, mule or zaligka. The miller would weight it and would receive his pay. The "Xai", in goods. There were a lot of millers in the village: Giorgos Dana', Kostas Haralambis, Thanasis Papadopoulos and others.

The mill required patience. One could not hurry at the mill. Each grinding took roughly 2 to 3 hours. That was basically the reason that a miller had a lot of time for himself and happily enjoy his sleep without worries. The rhythm would sing him to sleep. Others, on the other hand, like my father, would use this time for a second job. He used to sew suits from skouti (special thick cloth) or capes with braids and cordons. But the "vardaria" would wake him up "telling" him that the grinding was over and he should add more. If the millers had no other work to do, they would tell popular stories. Old stories about the fairies that sometimes came in the nights and stayed in the "kalani", the water wheels and the "zorio" of the mill, as well in the hollows of the plane trees. During the nights of the "dodekaimero" (the twelve days), there were huge gatherings of goblins and pagans. The mill had a small room with a fireplace and a wooden bed. There, the miller would make "karabokokoukI" (hamokouki) and bean soup in a cooking pot. A small oil lamp (kantili) lit up the interior of the mill and sometimes as a backup the galolampa. Most of the times it was lonely in the mill. But when the customers came, there was a lot of discussions about politics, social events, matchmakings and gossip.

The traditional vividness of the watermills is lost forever, together with the local laboratories the "mantania" and the "nerotrovies". Paparousi, unfortunately, did not have mantania nor norotrovia because of the little quantity of water. I will provide a description about the mantania. It was a wooden mechanism that together with the nerotrovi' they made the local woollen fabrics to tighten.

Very few watermills are saved today and also very little are the grindings that they bring to them. One still exists in Fragkista. A visit to that mill is worthwhile. The huge steam mills and the cylinder mills that replaced the watermills, "swallow" tons per hour. The old watermills worked at their leisure. There was calm and peacefulness. There are still people that prefer the watermill because it makes the flour soft and tasty. The machine "burns" it.

Yannis A. Papadopoylos

7. Γάστρα (to be translated)

Η γάστρα ήταν ένα απαραίτητο σκεύος της υπαίθριας ζωής. Πολύ λίγες οικογένειες διέθεταν μόνιμους φούρνους στα ορεινά χωριά. Για να ψήσουν ψωμί ή φαγητό του φούρνου, έπρεπε να βρουν άλλο τρόπο. Η λύση ήταν ένας φορητός και γρήγορος φούρνος. Αυτό ήταν η γάστρα.

Η γάστρα αποτελείτο από μια ημισφαιρική χονδρή λαμαρίνα, που στο πάνω μέρος είχε μια λαβή για να ημπορούν να τη σηκώνουν με το "ξυθάλι". Χαμηλώτερα από τη λαβή είχε ένα μεταλλικό στεφάνι για να κρατάει τις ζεστές στάχτες και τ' αναμμένα κάρβουνα. Στη "γωνιά", η οποία αποτελείτο από "σίμαλες" πλάκες για να κρατούν την θέρμανση, άναβαν δυνατή φωτιά από λεπτά ξύλα για να κάνουν γράηγορη και δυνατή φλόγα και να δημιουργούν κάρβουνα πολύ γρήγορα. Πάνω σε αυτήν τη φοβερή φωτιά τοποθετούσαν τη γάστρα, η οποία γινόταν κατακόκκινη από τη δυνατή φλόγα. Όταν η φωτιά κατέπαυε, οι νοικοκυρές καθάριζαν τη γωνιά, έβαζαν το στρογγυλό ταψί με το ψωμί ή το φαγητό, μετά τη γάστρα και ύστερα τα κάρβουνα και τις ζεστές στάχτες πάνω και γύρω στη γάστρα και εσφράγιζε το φορητό φούρνο. Σε δύο η τρεις ώρες το φαγητό ή το ψωμί ήταν έτοιμο.

Η γάστρα ήταν ένας πρωτόγονος φορητός φούρνος. Τον έπαιρνες μαζί σου, τον φόρτωνες στο γαϊδουράκι ή στο μουλάρι μαζί με τα πενιχρά τρόφιμα και με το πιτσιρίκι κάπου-κάπου. Έτσι ημπορούσες να ψήσεις ψωμί (απαραίτητο), πίτες κρέας, μπακλαβά και άλλα. Η γάστρα μαζί με την πυροστιά , το ξυθάλι ένα κακάβι με το καπάκι για πιάτο, ήταν τα βασικά σκεύη της υπαίθριας κουζίνας.

Περιττό να πούμε ότι το φαγητό είχε υπέροχη γεύση, γιατί η γάστρα εσφράγιζε καλά και κρατούσε μέσα τα υγρά και έψηνε πολύ σιγά.

Άλλα σκεύη της χωριάτικης μαγειρικής ήταν το τηγάνι, το ταψί (στρογγυλό), η χουλιάρα (κουτάλα), ο τέτζερης, ο μαστραπάς (τσουκάλι) και άλλα. Καλή Όρεξη!...

8. Childhood memories (poem)

Poem by Elli Kalyva, April 1972: We immigrated to Australia in 1968. We left Greece in November 19th 1968 and arrived in Australia in December 19th 1968. The poem includes thoughts written down the first three years:

Να προσπαθήσω τόβαλα να γράψω απ' το χωριό μου
Τις αναμνήσεις που κρατώ πάντοτε στο μυαλό μου.

Τις αναμνήσεις μου αυτές θέλω να τις διαβάσουν
Εχθροί και φίλοι και γνωστοί που μας καταδικάζουν.

Δεν έχω πάθει στη ζωή τόσα πολλά να ξέρω
Μα όλα αυτά που πέρασα με κάναν να υποφέρω.

Θυμάμαι στις βουνοκορφές χειμώνα - καλοκαίρι
Όταν ξημερο-βράδυαζε με τσουχτερό τα αγέρι.

Γι' αυτό η ιστορία μου όσο κι αν ζήσω ακόμα
Θα επιθυμούσα νάμενε για πάντα στον αιώνα.

Καλύτερα όμως παιδιά στο θέμα μας να' ρθούμε
Γιατί εμείς μου φαίνεται πάει! Θα ξεχαστούμε.

Ν' αρχίσω πρώτα θάθελα απ' τα μικρά μου χρόνια
Τότε που πρωτόνιωσα χαρά και γνώρισα συμπόνια.

Τα' όνομα πούχε το χωριό ήτανε: Παπαρούσι
Που οι κάτοικοι οι μακρινοί δεν τόχανε ακούσει.

Ήτανε ένα μικρό χωριό καταπρασινεμένο
Και στις πλαγιές, στα λόφια του μ΄ έλατα φορτωμένο.

Είχε πολλών ειδών δενδριά, άγνωστο το' όνομά τους
Που Αθηναίοι κάτοικοι δεν άκουσαν τ' αυτιά τους.

Θάθελα όλα τα δενδριά για να τα περιγράψω
Φοβάμαι όμως πως δεν μπορώ και μούρχεται να κλάψω

Ονόμασα το φτωχικό χωριό γεννήσεώς μου
Που η εικόνα του έρχεται συχνά μεσ' το μυαλό μου

Θυμάμαι στα λαγκάδια του εκεί θε να πατήσω
Μόνο για ακόμη μια φορά θέλω να τα' αντικρύσω

Όσο μακρυά κι αν βρίσκομαι κι ας ζω σε χώρα ξένη
Δεν έπαψα να σ' αγαπώ Πατρίδα αγαπημένη

Και τα πολλά οικιακά Άλογο, κότες, βόδι
Ήταν πάντα η σκέψη μας εκεί στο φτωχοχώρι

Το βόδι το τεράστιο που όλοι το φοβόταν
Τι δυστυχία θάτανε! Αν κάποιος σκοτωνόταν!!!

Αγρίευε όταν έβλεπε άνθρωπο μεσ' στα μαύρα
Και τα παιδάκια του χωριού σπαράζανε στο κλάμα

Ήμουν έξη μόλις χρονώ που πήγαινα σχολείο
κι ο κόσμος μέσα στο χωριό με φώναζε "θηρίο"!

Μικρό κορίτσι ήμουνα κι αν πήγαινα σχολειό
Τ' απόγευμα θα έπαιζα και λίγο το κρυφτό

Η μάννα μου πάντα αυστηρή απ' τα χωράφια ερχόταν
Και τα παιδιά απ' το κρυφτό όλα εξαφανιζόταν

Γιατί ποτέ δεν ήθελε τα ξένα τα παιδιά
Να μας απασχολούν χωρίς καμιά δουλειά.

Στην "Βήτα" τάξη πήγαινα Άριστη μέσ' την τάξη
Με "10" προβιβάστηκα και για την 3η τάξη

Καινούργιο δάσκαλο είχαμε "Γιώργος" ήταν τα' όνομά του
Η πρώτη μέρα ήτανε άσχημη η ματιά του.

Παράδειγμα επήραμε από την πρώτη μέρα
Τον Παύλο που εκτύπησε γιατί κυττούσε πέρα

Για μάθημα μας σήκωνε πολύ πιο τακτικά
Και πάντα από το φόβο μας δεν βγάζαμε μιλιά

Στα νεύρα του όταν ήτανε σε κάποιονε θα τρέξει
Και με τη βέργα τη χλωρή κάποιος θα τις μαζέψει.

Δεν λείπαν εν τω μεταξύ και λίγες απουσίες
Θα είχαμε αν δεν δούλευα στο σπίτι, δυσκολίες!

Οι περνούσαν γρήγορα κι όλο με αγωνία
Την τάξη να τελειώνουμε Νοιώθαμε την ανία...

Λίγες βδομάδες μείνανε για τα ενδεικτικά μας
Έπρεπε να διαβάζουμε για τα καλά γραπτά μας.


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